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Photographs > Glass plate negatives

+ H10455 Glass plate negative, quarter pla...
+ P2067 One of a collection of 160 photogr...
+ P2775 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2776 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2777 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2778 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2779 Photographic glass plate and photo...
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+ P2794 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2795 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2796 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2797 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2798 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2799 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2800 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2801 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2802 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2803 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2804 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2805 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2806 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2807 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2808 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2809 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2810 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2811 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2812 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2813 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2814 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2815 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2816 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2817 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2818 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2819 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2820 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2821 Photographic glass plate and photo...
+ P2822 Photographic glass plate and photo...


Photographs > Gelatin dry plate negatives

+ 2009/24/1 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-1 Photographic glass plate negati...
+ 88/289-2 Photographic glass plate negati...
+ 88/289-3 Photographic glass plate negati...
+ 88/289-4 Photographic glass plate negati...
+ 88/289-5 Photographic glass plate negati...
+ 88/289-6 Photographic glass plate negati...
+ 88/289-7 Photographic glass plate negati...
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+ 88/289-9 Photographic glass plate negati...
+ 88/289-10 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-11 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-12 Photographic glass plate negat...
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+ 88/289-14 Photographic glass plate negat...
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+ 88/289-16 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-17 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-18 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-19 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-20 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-21 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-22 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-23 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-24 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-25 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-26 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-27 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-28 Photographic glass plate negat...
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+ 88/289-35 Photographic glass plate negat...
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+ 88/289-37 Photographic glass plate negat...
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+ 88/289-41 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-42 Photographic glass plate negat...
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+ 88/289-44 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-45 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-46 Photographic glass plate negat...
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Photograph of components of Hudson Brothers chaff cutter, 1881 - 1898
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Object statement
Photographic glass plate negative, components of Hudson Brothers chaff cutter, Hudson Brothers, Granville, Australia, 1881-1898
This is a photograph of components of a chaffcutter manufactured by Hudson Bros. Hudson Bros was a predecessor to the Clyde Engineering Company Co. Ltd. This chaffcutter would have been made after the Hudson Bros company added farm machinery to their range of railway carriages and rolling stock in 1884 but before the Clyde Engineering Co. Ltd, rose from the ashes of the Hudson Bros. in 1898.

Both manifestations were considered large, well-respected Australian firms located in Granville, a Sydney suburb. This is one of the earliest pieces of machinery depicted in this collection of photographs.

A chaffcutter was used to cut straw and hay in order to make feed for the animals, especially horses. Other animal food preparation machines included crushers, grist mills, cake breakers, root cleaners and cutters, and corn shellers. A chaffcutter was one of the most commonly found machines on the farm. It was not until machines began to replace the horse on the farm that chaffcutters began to decline in sales. Chaffcutters are found often in museum collections because of they were well-maintained and continued to be used often well into the middle of the twentieth century.

Cutting the straw and hay into smaller sizes helped the tired, hardworking horses eat the amount they needed to keep up their energy and health. The benefits of using food preparation machines ensured that livestock had better digestion. Cut feed was also advantageous for hard-worked horses, horses which bolted their food, animals with worn teeth and young animals with incomplete teeth. A one inch (2.5 cm) long cut was best for cows and horses while a 1/4 of an inch (.63 cm) was used for sheep.

Chaffing was useful for storing straw or hay as it allowed close packing and prevented fermentation. This allowed larger quantities of chaff to be transported to the cities in order to feed the large number of horses there. Bagging the chaff also made it easier to transport.

This photograph shows the various parts of a Hudson Bros chaffcutter. The large flywheel to which the knives were attached is shown in the middle. The spiked rollers were placed one on top of the other in order to create the friction to hold the hay in place and move it towards the path of the rotating blade.

This photograph of chaffcutter parts was printed from a large series of Works photographs entitled, ┬?The Clyde Photograph Collection.┬?

Sidney Wilkinson-Flicker, Curatorial Intern (Supervisor: Margaret Simpson), November 2010

Almost all of the glass plate negatives in the Clyde photograph collection were taken at the Clyde works in Granville, and depict both the workers and the machinery they manufactured. Subjects covered include: railway locomotives and rolling stock; agricultural equipment; large engineering projects funded by Australian State and Federal governments; airplane maintenance and construction and Clyde┬?s contribution to the first and second World Wars. Some photographs date back to the 1880s but most were taken between 1898 and 1945.

The origins of the collection can be dated back to 1855 when William Henry Hudson set up the firm of Hudson Brothers in a small shop in Redfern, Sydney. Initially the company specialised in woodworking and the first major contracts undertaken by the Hudson Brothers included woodwork for the ┬?Great Hall┬? at Sydney University and building the Sydney ┬?Garden Palace┬? in 1879.

In 1876 Hudson Brothers won a lucrative contract to build rolling stock for the New South Wales government and as a result the business began to move toward metal-work rather than wood-work. The business was a success and twenty five years later had expanded to such a degree that a new work shop was needed to accommodate staff and equipment. In 1881 Hudson Brothers moved onto two hundred acres of land at Granville in the Western suburbs of Sydney and the new factory opened two years later in July 1883.

Unfortunately the recession of the 1890s hit Hudson Brothers hard and by 1898 it was forced into receivership. It was then that the newly formed Clyde Engineering Company took over the Hudson Brothers, although William Hudson continued to remain a board member and motivating force behind Clyde Engineering. Given the new company arose out of the old Hudson Brothers it is not surprising to find Clyde Engineering adopted a phoenix as its logo. The choice was apt for the new company did rise out of the ashes of the old and by 1950 Clyde Engineering had become the largest engineering enterprise in New South Wales.

In 1901, soon after it had become Clyde Engineering Ltd., the company began making carriages for the Federal Government and in 1903 began making them for the West Australian Government as well. In 1905 Clyde won a major contract with the New South Wales State Government to make railway locomotives.

Clyde Engineering was a large operation and took on contract work for major state government projects, mainly in New South Wales. These included prefabricated steel work for the Hawkesbury Bridge and the northern approach to the Sydney Harbour Bridge. In 1932 the company also built and supplied steel work for the Clarence River Bridge at Grafton and the Manning River Bridge at Taree.

Clyde Engineering made agricultural equipment for many parts of New South Wales, continuing the work of Hudson Brothers who began to manufacture windmills and ploughs made to their own unique designs in 1884.

During the Second World War it was an integral part of ┬?Workshop Australia┬?. In this period Clyde Engineering took on a new field, the repair of Hudson and Wirraway aircraft. In addition it provided munitions; 25-pounder field gun parts; locomotives and rolling stock to the war effort.

This collection of photographs is an archive of national significance due to its unique relationship to the industrial technology, engineering and commerce of New South Wales. In Australia few collections of this nature have survived to the present day especially ones which cover one company┬?s activities from the 1880s through to the 1950s in such depth.

The photographs are also significant in their illustration of the important contribution made by Clyde Engineering to the social fabric of New South Wales. By 1923 Clyde had 2,200 employees working round the clock on eight hour shifts. Some of these lived in houses specially built by the company in Granville and the works had its own fire brigade, ambulance service, gun club and was home to Australia┬?s first soccer club.

Geoff Barker, Assistant Curator, Total Asset Management Project, February, 2008

References
┬?Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales┬?, Vol. XLVII, Part 1, January 1, 1936, p. v

Australian Railway Historical Society, New South Wales Division, Steam Locomotives Built by the Clyde Engineering Co. Pty. Ltd., Granville, Australia, Australian Railway Historical Society, New South Wales, date unknown

Hine, H.J., ┬?Good Farming by Machine┬?, London, The English Universities Press, 1948, p. 145, 148-149

┬?Machinery: Splendid Exhibits┬?, The Sydney Morning Herald, NSW, 12 April 1911, page 13, column 1

Murray, James, ┬?Phoenix to the World┬?, Sydney, Playright Publiblishing Pty Ltd, 1992

Simpson, Margaret and Phillip, ┬?Old Farm Machinery in Australia: A Fieldguide & Sourcebook┬?, Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, 1991, p.77-79

The Clyde Engineering Company Limited, Visit to Clyde Works of the delegates of Chambers of Commerce of the British Empire, 21 September 1909, Cumberland Argus Printing Works, 1909?
The Clyde Engineering Company photograph collection is made up of around 1300 ┬Ż plate glass negatives and approximately 4000 triacetate negatives.

The tri-acetate collection appears to date from the late 1930s through to 1960s the glass plates from around 1900 -1950. Most of the photographs are commissioned works taken around the Clyde Works in Granville, Sydney. Others are copies of original photographic prints, blueprints and pages from books. These are hard to accurately date it is almost certain that the collection is the work of numerous photographers; unfortunately their identity is at present unknown.

Glass plates were first used to support photographic emulsions in the late 1840s and remained in continuous use right through until the middle of the twentieth century. While the earliest plates supported ┬?dry┬? and ┬?wet┬? collodion emulsions these were replaced with silver gelatin emulsions in the 1880s. Unlike earlier plates these were mass produced on a huge scale and were capable of fast speeds even at ┬Ż and full plate sizes.

One drawback of this process was that larger plate sizes required a correspondingly large camera to fit the plate. These were relatively cumbersome and when you take into consideration the weight of the glass plates it is no surprise to find they were mainly used for studio and commercial work. However they were still favoured by many professionals for a long time after roll film was introduced by Kodak in the late 1880s. This was because the large plates could be more easily worked on for masking and their contact prints provided better results than some of the early enlarging equipment

Geoff Barker, Assistant Curator, Total Asset Management Project, February, 2008

References
Gernsheim, H. and Gernsheim A., The History of Photography from the Earliest Use of the Camera Obscura in the Eleventh Century up to 1914. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1955.
The Clyde Engineering Company photograph collection was acquired by the Powerhouse Museum in December 1987. The material was removed from Clyde Engineering when the offices were being relocated and appears to be only a portion of the original collection. Around 1350 ┬Ż plate glass negatives and approximately 4000 tri-acetate negatives came to the Museum at this time.

The tri-acetate collection is made up predominantly of copies of blueprints and plans of machinery dating from the late 1940s through to 1960s. These subjects may have referred to actual work carried out by Clyde but material appears to have also been used for research and copied directly from books. In 2007 the tri-acetate negatives were placed into cold storage while waiting to be catalogued. In the same year the glass plates were catalogued and digitised as a part of the Total Asset Management Project for the Museum┬?s KEMu database and prepared for on-line delivery through OPAC and Picture Australia.

The subject matter contained in the ┬Ż plate glass negatives covers over 60 years of the Clyde Engineering Company┬?s activities in New South Wales. It starts in the 1880s when the company was still called Hudson Brothers and goes through to the late 1940s. Most of these images were taken at the Clyde Works in Granville, Sydney, New South Wales and many include interior and exterior images of the people and workshops at Clyde Engineering and on the banks of the Duck River.

Some appear to have been commissioned to record the completion of particular Clyde projects such as locomotives, boilers and agricultural equipment at the Clyde works. A few have been photographed in other locations such as the aircraft photographs taken at Bankstown Airport and some works photographed after delivery.

A few photographs are copies of original photographic prints, blueprints and pages from books and these are hard to accurately date. As most of the original negatives were taken over a long time period it is almost certain the photographs are the work of numerous photographers, unfortunately their identity is at present unknown.

Some of the negatives have appeared in a Clyde booklet published for the delegates of the ┬?Seventh Congress of the Chamber of Commerce of the British Empire in 1909┬? and a Clyde booklet held by the museum which was published around 1945. These publications and the fact that some of the negatives have been masked make it clear that the while the photographers were cataloguing the accomplishments of the company they were also creating content used to advertise and promote the company┬?s products.

Two photographers who did photographic work for Clyde from the 1960s onwards were Charles French of 87 Yarram Street, Lidcombe in New South Wales and Jack Draper an employee and photographer employed by Clyde Engineering around the same period.

Geoff Barker, Assistant Curator, Total Asset Management Project, February, 2008

 This text content licensed under CC BY-NC.

Description
Photographic glass plate negative, components of Hudson Brothers chaff cutter, Hudson Brothers, Granville, Australia, 1881-1898

A rectangular black and white silver gelatin glass plate negative in portrait format. The image depicts components of Hudson Brothers two bladed chaff cutter laid out and numbered, made by Hudson Brothers, Granville, Australia, 1881-1898. Taken over by Clyde Engineering Company Limited in 1898.
Made: 1881 - 1898
88/289-513
Production date
1881 - 1898
Height
215 mm
Width
164 mm
Depth
1.5 mm

 This text content licensed under CC BY-SA.
Acquisition credit line
Gift of Clyde Engineering Pty Ltd, 1988
This object belongs to:
Clyde Engineering Photograph Collection
Subjects
+ Agriculture
+ Harvesting
Short persistent URL
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{{cite web |url=http://from.ph/373446 |title=Photograph of components of Hudson Brothers chaff cutter |author=Powerhouse Museum |accessdate=30 June 2015 |publisher=Powerhouse Museum, Australia}}


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