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+ H10455 Glass plate negative, quarter pla...
+ P2067 One of a collection of 160 photogr...
+ P2775 Photographic glass plate and photo...
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Photographs > Gelatin dry plate negatives

+ 2009/24/1 Photographic glass plate negat...
+ 88/289-1 Photographic glass plate negati...
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Photograph of "Kalos" Clyde Engineering portable chaff cutter, 1905 - 1916
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Object statement
Photographic glass plate negative, "'Kalos" portable chaff cutter with elevator and twin bagger, made by The Clyde Engineering Pty Ltd, Granville, New South Wales, Australia, 1905-1916
This is a photograph of a travelling chaff cutter with an elevator and twin bagger attachment manufactured by The Clyde Engineering Co. Ltd with the model name ┬?Kalos.┬? Clyde Engineering was a large Australian firm in Granville, a Sydney suburb, which made agricultural machines, engineering equipment, and railway rolling stock during the first half of the twentieth century.

A chaff cutter was used to cut straw and hay in order to make feed for the animals, especially horses. Other animal food preparation machines included crushers, grist mills, cake breakers, root cleaners and cutters, and corn shellers. A chaffcutter was one of the most commonly found machines on the farm. It was not until machines began to replace the horse on the farm that chaffcutters began to decline in sales.

Cutting the straw and hay into smaller sizes helped the tired, hardworking horses eat the amount they needed to keep up their energy and health. The benefits of using food preparation machines ensured that livestock had better digestion. Cut feed was also advantageous for hard-worked horses, horses which bolted their food, animals with worn teeth and young animals with incomplete teeth. A one inch (2.5 cm) long cut was best for cows and horses while a 1/4 of an inch (.63 cm) was used for sheep.

Chaffing was useful for storing and transporting straw or hay as it allowed close packing and prevented fermentation. This allowed larger quantities of chaff to be moved to the cities in order to feed the large number of horses there.

Attachments for chaff cutters included baggers, elevators, and sieves. After the straw was cut, the pieces would fall onto the elevator (an angled trough) which would lead to chutes (the bagger) that dropped into suspended bags.

Chaff cutters could be stationary or portable. Travelling chaffcutters were larger and more powerful. The travelling chaff cutter was hauled to the hay source out in the paddock or stack instead of having to transport all the hay to a stationary machine. Travelling chaffcutters were sometimes used by contractors that went from station to station during the harvest.

Clyde Engineering Co. Ltd manufactured the ┬?Kalos┬? model from 1905 to 1916. The ┬?Kalos┬? was a travelling chaff cutter that included an elevator and a twin bagger. The ┬?Kalos┬? was a combination of Clyde┬?s ┬?K1┬? cutter and a double-bagging mechanism. When stationary, the ┬?Kalos┬? could produce 20 tons of chaff a day.

This photograph of the Kalos┬? chaff cutter was printed from a large series of Works photographs entitled, ┬?The Clyde Photograph Collection.┬? Almost all of the glass plate negatives in the Clyde photograph collection were taken at the Clyde works in Granville, and depict both the workers and the machinery they manufactured. Subjects covered include: railway locomotives and rolling stock; agricultural equipment; large engineering projects funded by Australian State and Federal governments; airplane maintenance and construction and Clyde┬?s contribution to the first and second World Wars. Some photographs date back to the 1880s but most were taken between 1898 and 1945.

This collection of photographs is an archive of national significance due to its unique relationship to the industrial technology, engineering and commerce of New South Wales. In Australia few collections of this nature have survived to the present day especially ones which cover one company┬?s activities from the 1880s through to the 1950s in such depth.

The photographs are also significant in their illustration of the important contribution made by Clyde Engineering to the social fabric of New South Wales. By 1923 Clyde had 2,200 employees working round the clock on eight hour shifts. Some of these lived in houses specially built by the company in Granville and the works had its own fire brigade, ambulance service, gun club and was home to Australia┬?s first soccer club.

Geoff Barker, Assistant Curator, Total Asset Management Project, February, 2008
Sidney Wilkinson-Flicker, Curatorial Intern (Supervisor: Margaret Simpson), November 2010

References
┬?Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales┬?, Vol. XLVII, Part 1, January 1, 1936, p. v

Australian Railway Historical Society, New South Wales Division, Steam Locomotives Built by the Clyde Engineering Co. Pty. Ltd., Granville, Australia, Australian Railway Historical Society, New South Wales, date unknown

Hine, H.J., ┬?Good Farming by Machine┬?, London, The English Universities Press, 1948, p. 145, 148-149

┬?Machinery: Splendid Exhibits┬?, The Sydney Morning Herald, NSW, 12 April 1911, page 13, column 1

Murray, J., Phoenix to the World; the Story of Clyde Industries and Sir Raymond Purves, CBE, Playright Publishing Pty Ltd., 1992

Simpson, Margaret and Phillip, ┬?Old Farm Machinery in Australia: A Fieldguide & Sourcebook┬?, Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, 1991, p.77-79

The Clyde Engineering Company Limited, Visit to Clyde Works of the delegates of Chambers of Commerce of the British Empire, 21 September 1909, Cumberland Argus Printing Works, 1909?
The Clyde Engineering Company photograph collection is made up of around 1300 ┬Ż plate glass negatives and approximately 4000 triacetate negatives.

The tri-acetate collection appears to date from the late 1930s through to 1960s the glass plates from around 1900 -1950. Most of the photographs are commissioned works taken around the Clyde Works in Granville, Sydney. Others are copies of original photographic prints, blueprints and pages from books. These are hard to accurately date it is almost certain that the collection is the work of numerous photographers; unfortunately their identity is at present unknown.

Glass plates were first used to support photographic emulsions in the late 1840s and remained in continuous use right through until the middle of the twentieth century. While the earliest plates supported ┬?dry┬? and ┬?wet┬? collodion emulsions these were replaced with silver gelatin emulsions in the 1880s. Unlike earlier plates these were mass produced on a huge scale and were capable of fast speeds even at ┬Ż and full plate sizes.

One drawback of this process was that larger plate sizes required a correspondingly large camera to fit the plate. These were relatively cumbersome and when you take into consideration the weight of the glass plates it is no surprise to find they were mainly used for studio and commercial work. However they were still favoured by many professionals for a long time after roll film was introduced by Kodak in the late 1880s. This was because the large plates could be more easily worked on for masking and their contact prints provided better results than some of the early enlarging equipment

Geoff Barker, Assistant Curator, Total Asset Management Project, February, 2008

References
Gernsheim, H. and Gernsheim A., The History of Photography from the Earliest Use of the Camera Obscura in the Eleventh Century up to 1914. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1955.
The Clyde Engineering Company photograph collection was acquired by the Powerhouse Museum in December 1987. The material was removed from Clyde Engineering when the offices were being relocated and appears to be only a portion of the original collection. Around 1350 ┬Ż plate glass negatives and approximately 4000 tri-acetate negatives came to the Museum at this time.

The origins of the collection can be dated back to 1855 when William Henry Hudson set up the firm of Hudson Brothers in a small shop in Redfern, Sydney. Initially the company specialised in woodworking and the first major contracts undertaken by the Hudson Brothers included woodwork for the ┬?Great Hall┬? at Sydney University and building the Sydney ┬?Garden Palace┬? in 1879.

In 1876 Hudson Brothers won a lucrative contract to build rolling stock for the New South Wales government and as a result the business began to move toward metal-work rather than wood-work. The business was a success and twenty five years later had expanded to such a degree that a new work shop was needed to accommodate staff and equipment. In 1881 Hudson Brothers moved onto two hundred acres of land at Granville in the Western suburbs of Sydney and the new factory opened two years later in July 1883.

Unfortunately the recession of the 1890s hit Hudson Brothers hard and by 1898 it was forced into receivership. It was then that the newly formed Clyde Engineering Company took over the Hudson Brothers, although William Hudson continued to remain a board member and motivating force behind Clyde Engineering. Given the new company arose out of the old Hudson Brothers it is not surprising to find Clyde Engineering adopted a phoenix as its logo. The choice was apt for the new company did rise out of the ashes of the old and by 1950 Clyde Engineering had become the largest engineering enterprise in New South Wales.

In 1901, soon after it had become Clyde Engineering Ltd., the company began making carriages for the Federal Government and in 1903 began making them for the West Australian Government as well. In 1905 Clyde won a major contract with the New South Wales State Government to make railway locomotives.

Clyde Engineering was a large operation and took on contract work for major state government projects, mainly in New South Wales. These included prefabricated steel work for the Hawkesbury Bridge and the northern approach to the Sydney Harbour Bridge. In 1932 the company also built and supplied steel work for the Clarence River Bridge at Grafton and the Manning River Bridge at Taree.

Clyde Engineering made agricultural equipment for many parts of New South Wales, continuing the work of Hudson Brothers who began to manufacture windmills and ploughs made to their own unique designs in 1884.

During the Second World War it was an integral part of ┬?Workshop Australia┬?. In this period Clyde Engineering took on a new field, the repair of Hudson and Wirraway aircraft. In addition it provided munitions; 25-pounder field gun parts; locomotives and rolling stock to the war effort.

The tri-acetate collection is made up predominantly of copies of blueprints and plans of machinery dating from the late 1940s through to 1960s. These subjects may have referred to actual work carried out by Clyde but material appears to have also been used for research and copied directly from books. In 2007 the tri-acetate negatives were placed into cold storage while waiting to be catalogued. In the same year the glass plates were catalogued and digitised as a part of the Total Asset Management Project for the Museum┬?s KEMu database and prepared for on-line delivery through OPAC and Picture Australia.

The subject matter contained in the ┬Ż plate glass negatives covers over 60 years of the Clyde Engineering Company┬?s activities in New South Wales. It starts in the 1880s when the company was still called Hudson Brothers and goes through to the late 1940s. Most of these images were taken at the Clyde Works in Granville, Sydney, New South Wales and many include interior and exterior images of the people and workshops at Clyde Engineering and on the banks of the Duck River.

Some appear to have been commissioned to record the completion of particular Clyde projects such as locomotives, boilers and agricultural equipment at the Clyde works. A few have been photographed in other locations such as the aircraft photographs taken at Bankstown Airport and some works photographed after delivery.

A few photographs are copies of original photographic prints, blueprints and pages from books and these are hard to accurately date. As most of the original negatives were taken over a long time period it is almost certain the photographs are the work of numerous photographers, unfortunately their identity is at present unknown.

Some of the negatives have appeared in a Clyde booklet published for the delegates of the ┬?Seventh Congress of the Chamber of Commerce of the British Empire in 1909┬? and a Clyde booklet held by the museum which was published around 1945. These publications and the fact that some of the negatives have been masked make it clear that the while the photographers were cataloguing the accomplishments of the company they were also creating content used to advertise and promote the company┬?s products.

Two photographers who did photographic work for Clyde from the 1960s onwards were Charles French of 87 Yarram Street, Lidcombe in New South Wales and Jack Draper an employee and photographer employed by Clyde Engineering around the same period.

Geoff Barker, Assistant Curator, Total Asset Management Project, February, 2008

 This text content licensed under CC BY-NC.

Description
Photographic glass plate negative, "'Kalos" portable chaff cutter with elevator and twin bagger, made by The Clyde Engineering Pty Ltd, Granville, New South Wales, Australia, 1905-1916

A rectangular black and white silver gelatin glass plate negative in landscape format. The image depicts a Clyde four knife double screw bagging travelling chaff cutter. The chaff cutter is hung on hooks with an auger which pushed the bags down, (see 88/289-218 and -219).
Made: 1905 - 1916
88/289-66
Production date
1905 - 1916
Height
164 mm
Width
215 mm
Depth
1.5 mm

 This text content licensed under CC BY-SA.
Acquisition credit line
Gift of Clyde Engineering Pty Ltd, 1988
This object belongs to:
Clyde Engineering Photograph Collection
Subjects
+ Agriculture
+ Farming
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Concise link back to this object: http://from.ph/367691
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{{cite web |url=http://from.ph/367691 |title=Photograph of "Kalos" Clyde Engineering portable chaff cutter |author=Powerhouse Museum |accessdate=6 September 2015 |publisher=Powerhouse Museum, Australia}}


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Object viewed 6038 times. Parent IRN: 2114. Master IRN: 2114 Img: 190579 Flv: H:2539px W:2953px SMO:0 RIGHTS:.