Model flying machine, flapping wing 'Experiment H, J, K', paper / wood / rubber / plastic / string, made by Lawrence Hargrave, Rushcutters Bay, New South Wales, Australia, 1887
The Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences holds the largest collection of material internationally of the aviation pioneer, Lawrence Hargrave. While no single individual can be attributed to the invention of the aeroplane, Hargrave belonged to an elite body of scientists and researchers (along with Octave Chanute, Otto Lilienthal and Percy Sinclair Pilcher) whose experiments and inventions paved the way for the first powered, controlled flight achieved by the Wright Brothers on December 17, 1903.
Hargrave's greatest contribution to aeronautics was the invention of the box or cellular kite. This kite evolved in four stages from a simple cylinder kite made of heavy paper to a double-celled one capable of lifting Hargrave sixteen feet off the ground. The fourth kite of the series, produced by the end of 1893, provided a stable supporting and structural surface that satisfied the correct area to weight ratio which became the foundation for early European built aircraft. For example, Hargrave's box kite appears to be the inspiration for Alberto Santos Dumont's aircraft named '14bis', which undertook the first powered, controlled flight in Europe in 1906. Similarly, Gabriel Voisin states in his autobiography that he and his brother Charles, who manufactured the first commercially available aircraft in Europe, owe their inspiration to their construction to a Hargrave box kite, while via correspondence with Octave Chanute, there is also evidence for Hargrave's box kite influencing the aircraft used by the Wright Brothers during their historic flight in 1903.
Hargrave's contribution to aeronautics can also be observed in other ways. For example, he conducted important research into animal movement, which he dubbed as his 'Trochoided Plane Theory' and produced a number of flapping models which successfully demonstrated a means of propulsion. However, the flapping wing models were unable to ascend or lift from ground level with manpower alone. This prompted Hargrave to design and produce alternative power sources including a variety of engines, the most influential being his three cylinder radial rotary engine. This arguably formed the basis of the idea for the famous French Gnome engine, which became the primary source of aircraft power for the French Allies in World War I.
Beyond aviation, Hargrave is also significant for his exploration work in the Torres Strait and New Guinea. In 1876, for example, he joined Luigi d'Albertis' expedition to the Fly River and on completion, was regarded as an expert cartographer who held an unrivalled knowledge of the region. Hargrave also contributed to the study of astronomy with his development of adding machines to assist Sydney Observatory in their calculations. He similarly researched and wrote on Australian history and was an early proponent for the establishment of a bridge across Sydney Harbour.
Adams, M., "Wind Beneath His Wings - Lawrence Hargrave at Stanwell Park" (September 2004)
ADB Online, "Lawrence Hargrave", http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A090194b.htm (Downloaded 18/7/2007)
Grainger, E., "Hargrave and Son - A Biography of John Fletcher Hargrave and his son Lawrence Hargrave" (Brisbane, 1978)
Hargrave, L., "Recent Work on Flying-Machines" (Read before the Royal Society of New South Wales, June 1, 1887)
Hargrave, L., "Flying Machine Memoranda" (Read before the Royal Society of New South Wales, August 7, 1889)
Hudson Shaw, W & Ruhen, O., "Lawrence Hargrave - Explorer, Inventor & Aviation Experimenter" (Sydney, 1977)
Roughley, T.C., "The Aeronautical Work of Lawrence Hargrave" (Technological Museum, Sydney Bulletin No.19, 1939)
This flapping wing machine model, designated as either 'Experiment H,J,K' or the '11th flying machine', was produced by Lawrence Hargrave in Rushcutters Bay, New South Wales, Australia in 1887.
The model is constructed from light wood and paper in the membrane of the plane and it is powered by twenty-four rubber bands. There is no device for steering. The paper used in the plane's membrane replaces a previous experiment using muslin (a type of cotton fabric), which was found to buckle under pressure.
The specifications of this flapping wing model were modified twice during the course of Hargrave's three experiments. Initially, it was built with an area of 1986 sq in, but it was later reduced to 1974 sq in.
Hargrave's flapping wing machine models formed part of his earliest experiments between 1884 and 1892. They were conceived from a theoretical study conducted by Hargrave into the movement of animals like fish, snakes and jellyfish, as well as the movement of waves (a theory he famously dubbed at a Royal Society meeting as 'The Trochoided Plane'). This theory prompted him further into the study of birds and their anatomy and the use of flapping wings as a means for propulsion, hence the development of the flapping wing model. Altogether, Hargrave produced 19 India rubber powered flying machine models. His last one was tested on January 31, 1889.
Hargrave's initial models of this type were powered by clockwork, but he later replaced this with rubber bands and then compressed air and steam. The use of India rubber as a means of propulsion was first put forward by Sir George Caley in 1853 and later by others, including Alphonse Penaud. Hargrave favoured this form of propulsion because the air currents initiated by the up stroke of the wings increased the efficiency of the down stroke. This meant there was no tendency for the machine to veer and there would be less chance of damage upon landing.
This particular model was originally built as 'Experiment B', but was later modified and tested (as 'Experiment H') on September 8, 1887. At this time it was found to fly 192 feet by 193 ft pounds of energy stored in the stretched elastic bands. 'Experiment J' was tested on September 28, 1887 and flew 203 feet by 208 ft pounds of energy, while 'Experiment K' was tested on October 8, 1887, flying 209 feet by 218 ft pounds of energy. In a paper presented to the Royal Society of New South Wales, Hargrave dubbed 'Experiment H,J,K' as one of his three most successful experiments. He even discovered with 'H,J,K' (along with 'Experiment L' and a 48 band model) that the percentage of the areas in advance of the centres of gravity should lie somewhere between 19.3% and 23.3%. Hargrave says "these positions were arrived at by experience gained by repeated wrecks when groping in comparative darkness".
The second of four children of John Fletcher and Ann, Lawrence Hargrave was born at Greenwich, London on January 29, 1850. In 1856, Lawrence's father, eldest brother Ralph and uncle Edward emigrated to Australia in what appears to be a consensual marital separation between John and Ann. They were bound for Sydney to join a third brother of John and Edward, who was a member of the Legislative Assembly for New England (named Richard), while Ann, Lawrence and her two other children, Alice and Gilbert, stayed in Kent, England.
During his early years, Lawrence was educated at the Queen Elizabeth's School in Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmoreland, before he sailed to Australia in 1865 to join his father, brother and two uncles. John Fletcher, who was a distinguished judge in the New South Wales Supreme Court living at Rushcutters Bay House, anticipated a career for Lawrence in law. Despite organising tuition for him, Lawrence failed to matriculate, but was subsequently accepted to begin an apprenticeship with the Australasian Steam Navigation Company (ASN Co) in 1867. For five years he worked as an apprentice, gaining invaluable skills in woodworking, metalworking and design.
The circumnavigation voyage of Australia aboard the 'Ellesmere' (offered to Lawrence by another passenger en route to Australia from London) obviously stimulated an interest for Lawrence in exploration. From 1871, Lawrence joined the Committee of Management of J.D. Lang's New Guinea Prospecting Association and in 1872 was on board the brig 'Maria', bound for New Guinea in search of gold, when it sunk off Bramble reef, north Queensland, causing great loss of life. After returning to Sydney to work for the ASN Co, and later the engineers P.N. Russell & Co, Lawrence participated in several more exploratory voyages to the Torres Strait and New Guinea, accompanying figures like William Macleay, Octavius Stone and Luigi d'Albertis along the Fly River. These voyages continued until 1876, at which time Lawrence worked at the foundries of Chapman & Co, before choosing to settle down with new wife, Margaret Preston Johnson in September, 1878 with whom he had seven children (Nellie, Hilda, Margaret, Brenda, Olive, Geoffrey and Brenda-Olive).
In January of the following year, Lawrence commenced work as an extra observer (astronomical) at Sydney Observatory under the Government astronomer H.C. Russell. In this role, Lawrence was able to make a number of important observations and inventions, including the transit of Mercury in 1881, the Krakatoa explosion in 1883 and the design and construction of adding machines. The income made from land bestowed to Lawrence by his father in Coalcliff, however, meant that in 1883 Lawrence was able to resign from his position at the Observatory to pursue his fascination and study into artificial flight. This interest came about from his observation of waves and animal motion, including fish, birds and snakes.
Lawrence's earliest experiments, spanning 1884-1892, involved propulsion with monoplane models built from light wood and paper. He first attempted to build a full-size machine capable of carrying a human in 1887 and in 1889 he built his most influential engine - a three cylinder radial rotary engine. Lawrence's later experimental phase, 1892-1909, involved the use of curved surfaces in his models. This research subsequently led to the development of the box kite, the most famous invention associated with his name.
Lawrence always conducted his experiments in his local area (i.e. Rushcutters Bay, Woollahra Point and Stanwell Park). He was against patenting his inventions for fear of stifling the development of aviation in the bigger picture and therefore published his results quickly and widely, particularly through the Royal Society of New South Wales. This Society helped Lawrence to gain an international reputation and brought him into contact with other aviation pioneers like Octave Chanute and Otto Lilienthal. The very first paper he gave was "The Trochoided Plane" (delivered August 6, 1884).
In Lawrence's later years he conducted research into early Australian history, postulating the theory that two Spanish ships found their way into Sydney Harbour in the late 16th century. Apart from this and of course his interests in aeronautics, Lawrence also concerned himself with the contemporary issues of patent laws, free competition, Darwinism, a bridge for Sydney Harbour, pensions, strikes and conscription.
Lawrence Hargrave died of peritonitis at Lister Hospital on July 6, 1915. Lawrence's death came only nine weeks after the death of his youngest son, Geoffrey, at Gallipoli.