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Transport-Land > Bicycles

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Olympic 'Superbike', 1992 - 1997
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Images: 01 02

Object statement
Bicycle, Olympic 'Superbike', carbon fibre / metal, Australian Institute of Sport / Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology / Bike Technologies, Australia, 1997
In 1996 production began in Australia on a bicycle which has taken the bike racing fraternity by storm. Nicknamed the 'Superbike', it features a special lightweight carbon fibre frame designed by a collaborative project team from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) and the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). It is an excellent example of the application of scientific research and aerodynamic design to sport.

The team was headed by Lachlan Thompson, who was an aerospace engineer specialising in aerodynamics and a lecturer at RMIT. The project began almost by accident in 1992 when Thompson needed a cyclist for a photo-shoot. Olympic cyclist Kathy Watt was chosen at random off the street and in return she asked to have the aerodynamics of her bicycle and riding position tested in RMIT's wind tunnel. The Australian Olympic cycling coach, Charlie Walsh, heard about the incident, and the project grew from there.

The project team worked closely to achieve a bicycle that was not only aerodynamically superior, light and strong but was simple, versatile and reliable. From the start it was intended to design a bicycle suitable for mass manufacture but at the same time have the quality and precision of a jet fighter.

At each stage the bike was tested in the wind tunnel and test-ridden by Australia's elite cyclists. The results of this research saw the conventional tubular frame superseded by an aerodynamically-designed composite monocoque shell made of carbon fibre. This material is used widely in space programs and Formula One motor racing and reduces aerodynamic drag. The use of carbon fibre enables any shape to be formed with maximum strength and minimum amount of material. The conventional handle-bars were eliminated and carbon fibre handle-grips were attached directly to the wheel-forks. This feature provides extra strength between the seat and pedals, where the rider's power is exerted.

Manufacture of the Superbike began in Melbourne 1996 by a company set up for the purpose, Bike Technologies. The person chosen to head the company was Salvatore (Sal) Sansonetti, an Olympic cyclist who had ridden in the Australian team at Montreal in 1976. Sansonetti understood not only bikes but also metal-forming technology. His company, Nezkot, made injection-moulding dies for clients such as Holden and Ford; this technology was not very different from the manufacture of carbon fibre, one-piece bicycle frames. Track and road bikes were developed for the Commonwealth Games and the Atlanta Olympics, where numerous gold medals were won by riders using them. At Atlanta the Superbike was dubbed the most superior racing frame in the world.

The development of the Superbike, through the collaboration of athletes and scientists using high-tech research facilities, illustrates the emergence of sophisticated sports science in Australia. The Superbike received an Australian Award for Excellence from the Institution of Engineers Australia in 1995 as well as the Award for Best Technical Development, Road or Track, at the 8th Annual Velo News Awards in 1995.

Margaret Simpson
Assistant Curator, Transport
1998

Further Information
Lane, Terry, "Push to the limit" in The Australian Way, Nov 1996, pp.84-87.
McLean, Brian, "Super Roo: The Story Behind The Bike" in Bicycling Australia, Nov 1994, pp.50, 55.
Thompson, Lachlan, "Jumpstart for bicycle manufacture in Australia" in Engineering World, Aug 1996, pp. 4-7.
  • The development team for the Olympic 'Superbike' was headed by Lachlan Thompson, an aerospace engineer specialising in aerodynamics and was a lecturer at RMIT
  • The Olympic Superbike project began almost by accident in 1992 when Olympic cyclist, Kathy Watt, was chosen for photo-shoot by Lachlan Thompson. In return she asked to have the aerodynamics of her bicycle and riding position tested in the RMIT's wind tunnel.
  • In 1996 the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) changed the rules governing bicycle design to be less restrictive and this provided the opportunity to stretch the limits of bicycle design.
  • Design techniques and materials widely used in space programmes and Formula One motor racing were applied to the design of the Superbike.
See another object with talking points
The Superbike was designed and built by a project team from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) and the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) headed by Mr Lachlan Thompson, an aerospace engineer and lecturer at RMIT.

The whole project started by accident in 1992 (before the Barcelona Olympics), when Thompson, who specialises in aerodynamics, was setting up a photo session to contrast the modernity of a jet fighter to the antique technology of a bicycle. The cycling model failed to arrive, so Thompson went into Swanston Street, Melbourne and spotted a young cyclist, Kathy Watt. In return Thompson offered to put Watt in the RMIT wind tunnel to check the aerodynamics of her bike and riding position. When biomechanist Dr Brian McLean at the AIS heard about this he wanted all the other AIS cyclists checked in preparation for Barcelona. While working in the wind tunnel, Thompson revealed he had already done some preliminary work on bicycle design which had been shelved. One thing led to another and a project team was formed and the Superbike developed in consultation with Olympic cycling team coach, Charlie Walsh.

Initial work was on a three-tube frame bike but after the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) rules were changed regarding insistence on a triangular frame configuration, work on a new frame began in earnest

The research team included scientists, engineers, technicians and students. Most of the hard work was put in by engineering students Vaughan Bolwell and Rodney Peck, who both worked tirelessly during the critical stages of the bike's development.

The choice of using carbon fibre technology, an area where RMIT had special expertise, was an obvious one.

Thompson was determined from the outset that the product his team created had to be suitable for mass manufacturing, but at the same time it had to have the quality and precision of a jet fighter.

The Superbike is made in Australia by Bike Technologies headed by Mr Salvatore (Sal) Sansonetti.

Once the bike had been designed the project leader, Lachlan Thompson, was determined to put it into production in Australia. The problem was that bicycles had not been made in Australia since 1990 and from then had been imported from Japan, Taiwan, China and the U.S.A.

Thompson was introduced to Sal Sansonetti, who wanted to make bicycles, by a friend Thompson had worked with at Aerospace Technologies before he joined RMIT. Sansonetti was a former Olympic cyclist who rode in the Australian team at Montreal in 1976. He was also the Italian Champion in 1970 and won two stages of the 1971 Tour of Italy and the Milan Six. Not only did Sansonetti understand bikes and metal, but he was also the owner of a company, Nezkot, which made injection moulding dies for clients such as Holden and Ford. This technology was not too different from the manufacture of carbon fibre, one-piece bicycle frames.

A new company was formed in 1996, Bike Technologies, not only to provide bikes for the AIS but to manufacture the Superbike in track, touring and mountain bike types for world distribution. Networks are currently being established overseas. Bikes have already been sold in England, USA, South Korea, South Africa and New Zealand.

A percentage of the turnover from Bike Technologies is earmarked for research and development.

 This text content licensed under CC BY-NC.

Description
Bicycle, Olympic 'Superbike', carbon fibre / metal, Australian Institute of Sport / Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology / Bike Technologies, Australia, 1997

The Superbike bicycle comprises a special frame designed and made in Australia. The remaining components, disc wheels, cranks, pedals, seat, chain, etc, were made by Campagnolo, of Vicenza, Italy; this company is a sponsor of the Olympic cycling team. The mass of the bike is 5 kg.

The conventional tubular frame has been replaced by a composite monocoque shell made of carbon fibre which is scientifically shaped to reduce aerodynamic drag. The conventional handle bars have been eliminated, and instead carbon fibre handlegrips are attached directly to the wheelforks. This feature provides extra strength between the seat and pedals, where the rider's power is exerted. The sweeping aerodynamic lines of the Superbike combine with the lightweight carbon fibre shell to enable the bike to travel at a given speed with the exertion of five percent less power when compared to a conventional tubular framed racing bike.

The use of the carbon fibre construction enables any shape to be formed with maximum strength and minimum amount of material. This is why carbon fibre is used so widely in the space programmes and Formula One motor racing.

Unlike most equipment used by elite athletes, the Superbike has been designed for low cost, high volume manufacture.

Designed: Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology; ; 1992 - 1997

Designed: Australian Institute of Sport; ; 1992 - 1997

Made: Bike Technologies; Australia; 1997
98/54/1
Production date
1992 - 1997
Height
970 mm
Depth
415 mm

 This text content licensed under CC BY-SA.
Acquisition credit line
Purchased with funds provided by Ross Simpson Engineering and a donation by the manufacturer, Bike Technologies, 1998
Subjects
+ Transport
+ Olympic Games
+ Cycling
+ Bicycle racing
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{{cite web |url=http://from.ph/163573 |title=Olympic 'Superbike' |author=Powerhouse Museum |accessdate=1 November 2014 |publisher=Powerhouse Museum, Australia}}


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