Dress accessory, toggle, pine tree, ivory, China, c. 1700-1940
Chinese belt toggles called 'zhuizi' are small carved ornaments used as counterweights on the cords of pipe bags and other small bags which were usually hung on men's belts.
Chinese clothes were not well provided with pockets, so bags which could be suspended from a belt were useful articles of attire. In order to fulfil its primary purpose of securing things to a belt, a toggle must have what the Chinese called a 'string eye', which could pass a string or cord.
Toggle wearing disappeared from China in the 1940s, when western style clothing replaced traditional clothing.
Ivory makes a pleasing effect with its creamy colouring, natural markings and patterned cracking due to age.
It was believed that ivory and other animal products had many auspicious and medical powers of their own, to an even greater extent than many of the woods.
Trees, flowers and plants were always highly regarded as being able to bring about the forms of good fortune they symbolised, including happiness, long life, success, fertility and also, their power to avert evil.
Evergreens such as the pine and cypress symbolised long life, endurance, and vitality of spirit. The pine is believed to have the power to promote longevity. Its evergreen qualities also makes it a metaphor for friendships that persevere in adversity.
Cammann, Schuyler, Substance and Symbol in Chinese Toggles, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962, London, pp.61, 105-107.
Welch, Patricia, Chinese Art: A Guide to Motifs and Visual Imagery, Tuttle Publishing, 2008, Singapore, pp.36-37.
This toggle is part of a group that was collected in Peking by Hedda and Alastair Morrison between 1940 and 1942. Most of them were purchased from markets outside Chongwenmen Gate, and in Liulichang, a street known for its antique shops.